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What are radar principles and components?

A typical radar is a pulsed radar consisting mainly of antennas, transceiver switches, transmitters, receivers, timers, displays, and power supplies. The transmitter generates a high-power, high-frequency oscillating pulse. A directional antenna converts this high-frequency vibration into an electromagnetic wave (beam for short) like a beam and propagates through space at the speed of light. When the electromagnetic wave reaches the target during the propagation process, the target is excited to produce secondary radiation, and a small portion of the electromagnetic radiation of the secondary radiation returns to the radar, where it is collected by the antenna and called an echo signal. You. The receiver amplifies and converts the echo signal and sends it to a display for display, thereby detecting the presence of the target. To enable radars to search, find, and track targets in large areas of any airspace, the antennas are usually turned mechanically or electronically controlled beam scans are used to direct the antennas in space. Scans the beam in a specific way. Timers are used to control different parts of the radar and keep them running in sync. The transmit and receive transfer switches allow the same antenna to be used for both transmit and receive. The power supply supplies the necessary power to each part of the radar. The distance of the target is obtained by multiplying the time required for the electromagnetic wave to reach the target from the radar (that is, half the arrival time of the echo signal) by the speed of light (300,000 kilometers per second). The azimuth and elevation of the target are determined using the directional characteristics of the antenna beam. You can determine the target height based on the target distance and elevation. If there is relative movement between the target and the radar, the frequency at which the radar receives target echoes will change. This type of frequency shift is called a Doppler frequency shift, and its value is proportional to the radial component of the target's motion velocity. Therefore, the radial velocity of the target can be measured.
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